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Monument details

HER Number:TR 13 NW 96
Type of record:Listed Building


Grade I listed building. Main construction periods 1450 to 1599

Summary from record TR 13 NW 69:

Grade I Listed Barn at Westenhanger Manor. Large L-shaped C16th building to the north west of the house/castle.

Grid Reference:TR 12249 37198
Map Sheet:TR13NW

Monument Types

  • SITE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1450 AD to 1599 AD)
  • BARN (Post Medieval to Modern - 1581 AD to 2050 AD) + Sci.Date
Protected Status:Listed Building (I) 1045888: BARNS AT WESTENHANGER MANOR; Scheduled Monument 1020761: WESTENHANGER CASTLE

Full description

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The following text is from the original listed building designation:

3/102 Westenhanger
Barns at 27.8.52 Westenhanger Manor
Two conjoined barns. C16, in two periods. Galleted ragstone; east-west, range roughly coursed, north-south range evenly coursed in small blocks. Plain tile roofs. East-west range, with second range running north from east gable end, forming L-plan. East-west range: C16 or earlier. Chamfered stone plinth dropped down with broach stops at doorways, and continued along east gable end (visible from within second barn). No plinth to west end of south elevation. Central buttress on chamfered plinth to west gable end. Short section of roof at east end with higher ridge, abutting roof of second range. 3 later un-dressed ventilation slits to north elevation. Pointed-arched plain-chamfered upper window to gable end, and blocked plain-chamfered, probably pointed-arched opening towards base to south of buttress. Asymmetrical south elevation has three small plain-chamfered stone windows; one pointed-arched towards west end of plinth, and two 4-centred arched, one towards centre and one to east end. Three 4-centred arched stone doorways with broach stops; one, plain-chamfered, immediately east of west window, one, moulded and with hoodmould, to west of centre, and one, plain-chamfered, between central and east windows. Other, later, openings for doors, hatches and ventilation, two with probably re-used stone jambs. North-south range: later C16. South gable end flush with south face of first range. Higher, and more slightly chamfered stone plinth, to south gable end only. North end built out over stream with segmental arch over water. 2 small hollow- chamfered rectangular window openings to each gable end. 2 projecting stone porches to west and two to east, with hipped, gableted canopies jettied on brackets from pendant posts. Later doorway to south gable end. Interior: wall of east-west range becomes thinner above door-head level. Brick cross- wall in header bond, probably inserted, to each side of moulded south doorway. Floor, probably inserted, to east of moulded doorway. Roof of east- west range only partly inspected. Staggered butt purlins (C18?) in short bay- lengths to central section. C19 clasped-purlin roof to west end. 11-bay hammer-beam roof to north-south range. Bevelled arch braces to hammer-beams springing from pendant posts resting on dressed stone corbels. Hammer-posts terminate in collars which carry queen-struts to higher collars. Two tiers of aligned butt purlins, one with windbraces, below lower collars, and one without windbraces just above upper collars. 6 common rafters to each bay, morticed into purlins. Unusual roof, Scheduled Ancient Monument. See also item 3/101.
Listing NGR: TR1278936737

Description from record TR 13 NW 69:
Barn, Grade I, Westenhanger Manor. Large L-shaped C16th building to the north west of the house (TR 13 NW 3). (For full descriptions see list) (1)

As the outbuildings survive today they comprise two adjoining ranges forming an "L" plan, the earliest of the two being a substantial stone-built two storeyed "stable" block. Datring from the early 16th C this structure was in all probabilities constructed either by Sir Edward Poynings, his son Sir Thomas or (less likely) by Henry VIII.

Added at right angles to the eastern end of the stable and extending northwards from it is a large stone-built barn dating from the late 16thC. This substantial building is likely to have been erected by Thomas Smith. esq, or by his son Sir John Smith, who acquired the property from the crown in 1585. Projecting from each of the north and south side walls are a pair of wagon porches incorporating three-quarter wagon entrances. The barn extends northwards beyond the course of the river East Stour.

Extending eastwards from the north jamb of the north-eastern wagon porch is a stone boundary wall. Although now lengthened at its eastern end, this formerly linked the barn to the external dam of the moat, thus forming the northern boundary of a yard. The wall is straight joined to the barn, and is therefore of more recent date. None-the-less, features incorporated within the design of the barn suggest that the wall was always intended. It incorporates the remains of two substantial buttresses in its northern face.(2)

Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from the barn at Westenhanger Manor, Stanford was undertaken by English Heritage in 2002. The analysis produced a single site chronology of 146 rings spanning the period AD 1433 - AD 1578. Interpretation of the sapwood on the samples suggests that all the timbers represented, and probably all those used in the original construction of the barn, were felled sometime between AD 1579-96. This date is consistent with typological evidence for this form of roof. The dating also confirms that the barn was probably built by Thomas Smythe rather than by his son, Sir John. (3)

Further tree-ring analysis in 2008 (combined with the samples taken in 2002) of 46 samples from the barn and the adjacent stable block produced two dated chronologies and one undated chronology. One chronology from the barn consisted of a total of 149 rings spanning the years AD 1433-1581. A precise felling date of 1581 was obtained from one timber and the inference is that all the timbers were felled at the same time, thus the barn was built around this time. An further chronology of 89 rings from the barn could not be dated but it is assumed they were felled at the same time as the other timbers. A final chronology from the stable block consisted of a total of 167 rings spanning the years 1323-1489. A felling date range of 1499-1524 is assumed. (4)

Dendrochronology dating of the stub tiebeams gave a date of 1575. (Not certain whether this is the same event as the 2002 event mentioned above.) (5)

English Heritage, List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest (Map). SKE16160.

<1> MHLG Prov List Elham RD Sept 1960 46 No 17/5b (OS Card Reference). SKE47154.

<2> Archaeology South-East, 1998, Report on Selective Archaeological Recording at Outbuildings at Westhanger Castle, Stanford (Unpublished document). SKE7404.

<3> English Heritage, Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from a Barn at Westenhanger Manor, Stone Street, Stanford, Near Folkestone, Kent (Unpublished document). SKE8223.

<4> English Heritage, 2009, Westernhanger Manor Barn, Stone Street, Stanford, Near Folkestone, Kent: Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers (Unpublished document). SKE16762.

<5> Vernacular Architecture Group, ADS Dendrochronology Database, Vol. 33, Pg. 109 (Website). SKE17391.

Sources and further reading

Cross-ref. Source description
---Map: English Heritage. List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest.
<1>OS Card Reference: MHLG Prov List Elham RD Sept 1960 46 No 17/5b.
<2>Unpublished document: Archaeology South-East. 1998. Report on Selective Archaeological Recording at Outbuildings at Westhanger Castle, Stanford.
<3>Unpublished document: English Heritage. Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from a Barn at Westenhanger Manor, Stone Street, Stanford, Near Folkestone, Kent.
<4>Unpublished document: English Heritage. 2009. Westernhanger Manor Barn, Stone Street, Stanford, Near Folkestone, Kent: Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers.
<5>Website: Vernacular Architecture Group. ADS Dendrochronology Database. Vol. 33, Pg. 109.

Related records

TR 13 NW 3Parent of: Westenhanger Castle (Monument)